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HUMAN RIGHTS DAY On 10 December 1948, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which has become a (1)... standard for defending and promoting human rights. Every year on 10 December, Human Rights Day marks the adoption of the Universal Declaration which states that "Human beings are born with (2)... rights and fundamental freedoms". In 2006, Human Rights Day focused on (3)... poverty as a matter of obligation, not of charity. Poverty is (4)... by human rights violations. The links between human rights and poverty should be obvious: people whose rights are (5)... are more likely to be poor. Generally they find it harder or impossible to participate in the labour market and have little or no access to (6)... services and resources. Meanwhile, the poor in many societies cannot enjoy their rights to education, health and housing simply (7)... they cannot afford them. And poverty affects all human rights: for example, low income can prevent people from accessing education, which in turn inhibits their participation in public life and their ability to influence the policies affecting them. Governments and those in a position of authority must (8)... responsibility for dealing with poverty. The realisation of human rights — including the fight against poverty — is a duty, not a mere aspiration.
Read the text and choose the best options to fill in the gap (1).
complete
universal
typical
whole

Read the text and choose the best options to fill in the gap (2).
same
similar
equal
identical

Read the text and choose the best options to fill in the gap (3).
saving
breaking
encouraging
fighting

Read the text and choose the best options to fill in the gap (4).
made
caused
resulted

It... outside; I do not like to walk in such weather.
is rain
rains
is raining

At 10 o'clock in the morning on Wednesday Tom ... a delegation in the office.
will receive
will be receiving
is receiving

We were good friends, we ... each other for years.
had knowing
were knowing
had known

Fill in the gaps in the text with the correct forms of the verbs.
I'm living in a small Hotel at the moment, but I .... to a flat next week. I've asked a friend of mine to share it with me.
have moved
am moving
move
Moved

My colleagues usually ... four days a week, and tills week they ... five days.
work, work
are working, are working
are working, work

Catherine is studying law at the university, and so ...Nick.
were
does
was
is

Fill in the gaps in the text with the correct forms of the verbs. You said you ... to see me this Christmas.
will come
come
were coming
came

Although the sun was shining, it was still cold, because it... hard for two hours.
was raining
had rained
had been raining

Fill in the gaps in the text with the correct forms of the verbs.
I in Novgorod for three months and I'm enjoying life here very much.
was
am
had been
have been

She ... at the parcel long enough, before she ... that it was for her brother.
was looking, understood
had been looking, had understood
had been looking, understood

I... to the cinema but my friend persuaded me to stay.
was going
did not go
am not going

Fill in the gaps in the text with the correct forms of the verbs.
I’m learning Russian and I can already understand what people around me are talking about. "But I find it really difficult to speak Russian . I.... the course by the end of the year and hope I feel more confident with this language. will finish
finished
finish
will have finished

I... a very difficult day tomorrow. I need to prepare for the exam.
will have
have
having

Choose the right variant
We called our friends in London yesterday to tell them about the reunion that we ..
plan
were planning
have planned
will plan

Choose the right variant
While Tom ... a book, Marhta ... TV.
read, was watching
was reading, was watching
was reading, watched
read, watched

Fill in the gaps in the text with the correct forms of the verbs.
I’ve been working as a manager since I .... and I find It really interesting.
will arrive
arrived
arrives
arrive

Choose the right variant
The food that Ann is cooking in the kitchen ... delicious.
is smelling
will smell
smells
Smelt

The Irish Travellers are the largest minority in Ireland. There are about 25,000 Irish Travellers in Ireland and 1,300 in Northern Ireland. They are a little understood nomadic community, who have many difficulties to overcome if they are to survive as a culture and gain acceptance into Irish society. Among the challenges facing them are poverty and racism. The Irish Travellers are a distinct ethnic group which has existed for centuries. Often they are mistakenly considered part of the nomadic Romani, an ethnic group which originated in the region of India and is now widespread throughout Europe. But the Irish Travellers are indigenous to Ireland, so the two cultures are not related. While both are nomadic, the Irish Travellers are Roman Catholic and speak a language that is theirs alone. They have their own culture, customs, traditions, and language. They are noted for their musical and storytelling abilities. In times past, they travelled by horse-drawn wagon in caravans, making camp along the way. Tinsmithing, horse trading and peddling were the major sources of income in those days. Tinsmiths were so prevalent among Irish Travellers that the terms Tinker and Irish Traveller were used interchangeably. Today, Tinker is one of many names for Irish Travellers. Horses and wagons have given way to mobile homes pulled by motor vehicles. They continue their life on the road, but there are fewer places to stop and fewer places where they are welcome. Today, Irish Travellers mainly work in recycling. Changing needs of society and progress have eliminated the jobs that could support a culture on wheels. Irish Travellers are poor, undereducated, and on the receiving end of discrimination. Their life expectancy is lower than average while their infant mortality rate is higher than average. As is the case with the Romani, the Irish Travellers are seen by many as a group of immoral, ignorant criminals and con artists. People distrust their nomadic culture and their language, Shelta. Many think it's a secret language specifically developed as a tool to help the Irish Travellers trick innocent people. But this is not true. It is an old language, which has evolved with time and circumstances. Once heavily infused with Irish Gaelic it is now infused with English.
Read the text and complete the gap in the sentences with the words from the text.
... are the two main problems of Irish Travellers.
poverty and racism
a culture and acceptance
minority and poverty
racism and a culture

They were called Tinkers, which is now... for them.
terms
a title
a name

In the past the Irish Travellers went around by ... in caravans.
camels
foot
horse-drawn wagon

The Irish Travellers are mistakenly taken for the nomadic Romani, another... widely spread in Europe.
distinct group
community
ethnic group

Although both groups are nomadic, their cultures ....
indigenous
are not the same
are not related

I feel terrible. I think I ... to be sick.
will
go
am going

Choose the right variant
When Mark arrived, the Johnsons... dinner, but stopped in order to talk to him.
were having
was having
had
had been having

We were extremely tired at the end of the journey. We ... for more than 24 hours.
were travelling
had been travelling
have travelled



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